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8 novembre 2013


Classé dans : Non classé — transportsusaindustrialisation @ 23 h 33 min

In 1870, begin the age of the industry until 1960-1970. Until the second mondial war, it concerned just the Europe. The first industrial revolution was born in England in 1870 with the utilisation of steam engine (created by James Watt in 1769). There was a second industrial revolution beginning in 1880 helped by new technics Innovation, using the petrol and the electric energy, this revolution took place in Japan and USA.The growth of the Industrial Revolution depended to the possibility to transport raw materials and goods over long distances and good means to fing natural ressources. There were three important types of transportation that increased the economy during the Industrial Revolution: waterways, roads, and railroads. The transportation was important because people decided to live in the west of USA. Transports via water (boats) were the cheapest way. We will speak about , In a first time, the Railways during the American’s industrialisation, after we’ll explain the production of cars in USA in this period and finaly the transports with boats and the economical effect of this transports.

I: Railways in USA during the Industrial Revolution.

Classé dans : Non classé — transportsusaindustrialisation @ 23 h 19 min

Unlike other European countries , the U.S. territory was still developing when the train was invented. The railway networks have contributed greatly to the expansion of the territory since the train can link the cities together , achieve natural resources and develop remote territories . In addition, trains could also link the ports between them , thus facilitating the transport of goods for export.

In 1828, development of the first railroad began in Baltimore, and four years later the Baltimore and Ohio (B&O) Railroad reached 73 miles. By 1833, the Charleston and Hamburg Railroad extended 136 miles west of Charleston. The Panic of 1837 slowed railroad construction, but by 1840 the United States had over 3,000 miles of tracks, nearly double the mileage in all of Europe. And by 1860, the U.S. saw development of over 30,000 miles of railroad tracks, three-fourths of which were in the industrializing north. There were several southern railway lines, but no one single southern railway system.


In 1869, the first transcontinental line is created between New York and San Francisco. This line allowed to travel in a week, compared to six months before the arrival of the railway. All regions of the Atlantic to the Pacific, are connected by the railway . The expansion into the western territories is stimulated by the discovery of numerous gold, silver and copper deposits. The network had to connect the cities founded by the mining operating companies, new colonial territories and farmland . With the construction of the railroad , livestock grew with the opening of many slaughterhouses and industrial preparation of meat.
The arrival of the railways has not only helped to develop the country and to open the area. These are all the owners of the railway companies which have benefited from the rapid expansion . The railways were becoming larger and exercised strong control over all economic activities. As industries depended on rail transportation to work , the railways do not hesitate to aspire to : excessive prices, large discounts , profit sharing between rival companies , etc. . In a very short time , the railway companies were among the most powerful in the United States .

Water travel was generally more comfortable than the train, but railway travel became the most popular from of transport because it was economical, reliable, and fast. Trains traveled more than twice as fast as a stagecoach and four times as fast as a steamboat.

The development of so many railroads changed American society. The railroad provided indirect benefits by encouraging settlement and expansion of farming, thus transforming agriculture. Much more of the fertile prairie could be developed because the farmers now had access to national markets via the train. American cities were also influenced by railway development. Eastern seaports, along with other intermediate centers like Cincinnati, benefited from an increase in exportable goods.


A train transporting construction materials:

I: Railways in USA during the Industrial Revolution. Union%20Pacific%20train,%20dpl


II: The production of cars in USA In the facories.

Classé dans : Non classé — transportsusaindustrialisation @ 23 h 17 min

At the end of the 19th century, appears the four-stroke engine, the gasoline engine and diesel engine. The automobile has gradually imposed in developed as the main mode of transport for the movement of people and goods country. Its industry has been one of the most important and influential sectors since the end of World War II and its global growth has been dramatic. 250,000 cars were counted in 1907, 500,000 in 1914 with the advent of the Model T and 50 million before World War II. The fleet triple during the postwar boom and reached 300 million units in 1975. In 2011, the annual global production of automobiles would have reached 76 million units. [1] The first car produced on a large scale is the Ford T. The first Ford T series out of the Piquette Plant in Detroit September 27, 1908. The Ford Model T (nicknamed « Tin Lizzie » or « Flivver » in the United States) is an automobile produced by the Ford Motor Company led by Henry Ford between 1908 and 1927. The 1908 Ford Model T is the historic year when the car enters the era of mass production. It is generally regarded as the first car available to the greatest number, which « put America on wheels. » The Ford Piquette plant could not keep up with demand, and only eleven cars were built during the first month of construction. In 1910, after assembling 120,000 « T », Henry Ford moved the company to the new Highland Park complex. There, the « T » was the first car built to the chain with completely interchangeable parts with a copy to the other. Its aim was to seduce the American middle class. The car was initially offered at a price of $ 850, while some models were available within 2000. In the late 1920s, the price had fallen to $ 300 (which, taking into account inflation, equivalent to approximately 3300 current dollars) due to economies of scale and development of the production chain. Henry Ford carried out a vertical concentration required to produce its cars industries.

the Ford T:

II: The production of cars in USA In the facories. FordT

III.The Industrial Revolution, bigining of steamboats transport

Classé dans : Non classé — transportsusaindustrialisation @ 23 h 15 min

Before the eighteenth century, boat’s transports were dangerous and the travel was very long. But Americans were aware that this transportation can increase land value, stimulate domestic, foreign trade and strengthen the American economy.But in 1807, Robert Fulton sends the first commercially successful steamboat, whose name is Clermont. People who thank it will be an failure call this boat “Fulton’s folly”. The Clermont made the run of 150 miles at about five miles an hour, proving that it was an efficient vessel. By 1830, there were more than 200 steamers on the Mississippi. As early as the 1820s, the successes of the steamboat were clear. Steamboats played a vital role in opening the west and south to further settlement. They stimulated the agricultural economy of the west by providing better access to markets at a lower cost. Farmers quickly bought land near to navigable rivers, because they bring that away. Villages at strategic points along the waterways evolved into centers of commerce and urban life. Steamboats were also much more comfortable than other forms of land transportation at the time. The General Pike, launched in 1819, set the standard for luxurious steamers with marble columns, thick carpets, ornate mirrors, and plush curtains. Luxury steamers evolved into floating palaces where passengers could dine, drink, dance, and gamble as they traveled to their destinations. While steamboats were conquering western rivers, canals were under construction in the northeast to further improve the transportation network. The completion of the canal reduced travel time from New York City to Buffalo from 20 days to six, reduced the cost of moving a ton of freight from $100 to $5, and moved the country a step closer to linking the Mississippi Valley and the Atlantic Ocean. The canal also provided a water route from New York to Chicago, via the Great Lakes, and marked the beginning of Chicago’s rapid growth. The Erie Canal was immediately a financial success, paying for itself within seven years.


III.The Industrial Revolution, bigining of steamboats transport SteamboatCutout2


Classé dans : Non classé — transportsusaindustrialisation @ 23 h 02 min

Finaly we can say that Transportation changed during the Industrial Revolution that took place in North America and Europe, and paved the way to the efficient transportation that we are familiar with today.Also during this time, several important machines were developed that enabled mass production. The first motors operated by steam were developed and transportation began to change. The first change was in the development of canals, which made water travel more efficient. The second change was in the development of railways, which enabled the long-distance shipment of goods and people across land. The cars , the trains and steamboats were developed in the industrialisation, and this transports allowed a faster developpement of countries (transport of people,materials and goods).

Bonjour tout le monde !

Classé dans : Non classé — transportsusaindustrialisation @ 21 h 27 min

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